John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was an English philosopher who wrote on a wide range of subjects ranging from language and science to political philosophy. The so-called “mill” methods are five rules for the search for the causes he has proposed. It has been assumed that some of these rules were in fact discussed by the famous Islamic scientist and philosopher Avicenna (980-1037). It is important to remember that the use of the scientific method attempts to confirm or disprove a hypothesis; However, this process must always be considered partial and temporary. The weight we give to a confirmation or rebuttal is never all or nothing. We need to gather evidence over a long period of time. If we make mistakes, they are revealed by the results of repeated experiments. “Method of agreement.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/method%20%20Consecite. Access 30 Nov.
2020. Mills methods should not come as a surprise, as these rules articulate some of the principles we use implicitly in causal reasoning in everyday life. But it is important to respect the limits of these rules. Although Mills` methods are an important part of the serious study of natural phenomena, they have significant constraints. These methods can only be applied with care if all relevant pre-gonal circumstances are taken into account, which cannot be guaranteed in advance. Perhaps the best way to introduce Mills` methods is an example. Suppose your family went to a buffet dinner together, but when you got home, you started to feel sick and feel stomach pains. How do you determine the cause of the disease? Suppose you create a table of foods that are taken by each member of the family: milling methods can only reveal evidence of probable causes; they don`t really offer an explanation. The discovery of causalities is an important step towards understanding the world, but it is only part of what we need. We also need to understand how and why some cases of causation work the way they do. The answers to these questions lead us to the possibility of identifying cause-and-effect relationships. We need to develop theories and hypotheses that underpin the scientific argument.
This reasoning illustrates Mill`s method of residues: many elements of a complex effect are demonstrated by reliable causal beliefs from several elements of a complex cause; All that remains of the effect must have been produced by the remnants of the cause. Note that if we accept the truth of all the relationships of cause, this method becomes an application of the deductive argument. This method is also generally known as the most similar system design in the context of comparative policy. Precisely determining the causes and effects is not an easy task. We can often confuse or misrepreseg the two because we lack sufficient information. Mill`s methods are attempts to isolate a cause from a complex sequence of events.